zamza

2019-12-02 admin

zamza是什么

什么是zamza,Apache Kafka discovery, indexing, searches, storage, hooks and HTTP gateway

zamza使用教程帮助文档

zamza

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What

Apache Kafka discovery, indexing, searches, storage, hooks and HTTP gateway.

How

You can manage topics to be indexed on the fly via /api/topic-config and zamza will keep track of anything that goes through your Apache Kafka cluster. It will index and store messages in MongoDB, according to the topic’s delete or compact configuration. You can find and retrieve messages in milliseconds via /api/fetch. Zamza also allows you to register HTTP hooks to subscribe to topics, as well as HTTP calls to produce to Kafka topics. Hooks also allow performant retries as well as replays of whole Kafka topics for specific (hook-) subscribers.

Why

There are some tools out there that help developers to browse Kafka topics, like kafka-rest-ui or Java Kafka Tool, however they provide a very poor experience to their users, as they either require an annoying secret management, when working with production clusters (SASL-SSL) or are just very unresponsive and slow, because they are built upon a backend that spins up kafka consumers, which fetch with timeouts.

With zamza we simply accept the fact that spinning up a consumer and searching for a given message (seeking) might be the streaming way, but its a slow and frustrating thing to do, especially if you have a lot of developers doing that at the same time. Zamza brings millisecond message for key lookups by indexing topic windows in MongoDB.

Disclaimer: Depending on the size of your Kafka cluster (and topics…) you will need experience in scaling MongoDB.

Requirements

  • node.js >= 9.x.x (we suggest >= 10.11.x)
  • Apache Kafka >= 0.11.x (we suggest >= 1.x.x)
  • MongoDB >= 3.2 (we suggest >= 4.x)

Install

As simple as yarn global add zamza.

(NOTE: In case you dont have yarn run npm i -g yarn first.)

Run

zamza "./baseConfig.js"

You just have to throw in a config (JSON or JS). A base config is always used, so you just have to overwrite your specific requirements.

Check out zamza -h for other options.

Using

With any HTTP client.

Checkout the API quick start or the setup infos below.

There will be a UI for zamza very soon! Stay frosty.

API Quick Start

Getting general info about zamza and your Kafka clusters

You can get an overview of possible API actions by calling GET /api/info.

Configuring Kafka topics for zamza

By default zamza, will connect and fetch some information about your Kafka cluster. But it wont start building indices and metadata yet. You will have to configure topics so that they will be consumed and processed.

You can do that by providing a small configuraton in a POST /api/config/topic call. You will have to provide the following information in the body { topic, cleanupPolicy, retentionMs?, queryable? }.

  • topic is the name of the Kafka topic (you can fetch available topics via GET /api/info/topics/available)
  • cleanupPolicy is the clean up policy of your topic (similiarly configured in the MongoDB backend of zamza) allowed values are: compact (runs upserts based on you topics keys), delete (uses retentionMs to determine a ttl for messages), none (inserts only, no ttl) or compact_and_delete (runs upserts with ttl on retentionMs combined)
  • retentionMs ttl for the given messages in milliseconds (either the messages have a timestamp or the time of insertion will be used to determine when to delete a message), messages are deleted via MongoDB’s document delete index
  • queryable determines if the message values of a topic should be stored as JSON (object structure) or as Buffer (byte array), default is false which will store it as Buffer, increasing performance; however running queries with the query API will not be possible on such topics

If you configure a topic, it will be consumed from earliest and stored to MongoDB depending on the given configuration by zamza. Topics require about 1/2 the storage size in MongoDB (enable compression) that they require in Kafka.

It is also possible to deactivate persisting messages in zamza (see config file) and run in hookOnly mode. It is also possible to deactivate hooks and run consumption via pagination only (see config file).

Please note that any changes on the topic-config resource will take a few seconds to be polled and applied to all zamza instances, just like hook changes.

Fetching a message for a certain key

If your token has access to a topic, you can find messages for keys very fast by calling GET /:topic/find/key/:key.

Get a bulk of earliest messages for a topic

Very simply by calling GET /api/fetch/:topic/range/earliest/:count.

Get a bulk of latest messages for a topic

Very simply by calling GET /api/fetch/:topic/range/latest/:count.

Producing through zamza

It is very easy to produce Kafka messages to different topics via zamza. Just make sure your token has the __produce value and the topic exists prior to producing to it. As zamza is using auto-discovery to identify the partition count of a topic, it requires the topic to exist beforehand and cannot create it on the fly.

Then simply make HTTP POST /api/produce/ requests.

Paginating through topics through zamza (without Hooks)

It is possible to paginate through topics very efficiently, by using the fetch endpoints. Make sure your token has access rights to the specific topic and that the topic is configured in zamza.

Then simply make HTTP GET /:topic/paginate/stoe/:skipToIndex/:limit requests.

Please note that this can be a bit tricky to understand at first, but to paginate efficiently with a MongoDB backend zamza requires the last ObjectID. The correct way to start is therefore the following:

  1. fetch GET /:topic/paginate/stoe/null/100 to get the first 100 messages from earliest of a given topic
  2. response will look like { results: [ {$index: "123", .. }, ..] }
  3. now for the next fetch take the $index of the last message e.g. const lastIndex = response.results[response.results.length - 1].$index and fetch again GET /:topic/paginate/stoe/${lastIndex}/100 to get the next 100 messages

If you want to fetch from latest to earliest just use the other endpoint GET /:topic/paginate/etos/null/100 schema is the same. Please note that for zamza to provide you with the full topic data it will take some time to process the full Kafka topic after its configuration first, before you can start to paginate through it.

Fetching the JSON schema of a topic

If you have configured topics that are sticking to a certain JSON schema for their value payload and, which are (as they should be…) produced with full updates of the entities only, you can use the GET /api/info/schema/:topic/json endpoint to fetch the schema.

Fetching the detailed JSON schema of a topic (based on a single message)

When fetching JSON schemas on GET /api/info/schema/:topic/json zamza will consolidate the schema of the topic based on a few messages from earliest and from latest. If there types do not fit 100% intermediate types e.g. object or array might be result in the json schema. If you are certain that a topic ships a constant schema you can use GET /api/info/single-schema/:topic/json to let zamza build the schema based on a single latest message from the given topic.

Running advanced queries to find or count messages

Zamza enables you to search for messages in topics based on their payload fields. You can pass a query object to POST /api/query/:topic/filter body: { query: { "value.payload.customer.firstName": "Peter", "value.payload.customer.surName": "Pan" } }.

Message results will look equal to the other API message responses e.g. pagination. When querying messages you can provide additional parameters to customize your query:

  • limit to limit the results, default is null (unlimited) (you can omit this field) (will limit scanned documents not collected)
  • skipToIndex works exactly like described in the pagination API above, default is null (you can omit this field)
  • order order is applied when skipToIndex is used, value can be 1 or -1 (default is -1)
  • async boolean if the query should run separated from the http request, in case your query takes longer than your e.g. http timeout, default is false. In case you pass true here, your request will resolve very fast and will return a body { cacheKey: 123123123123 }, using this cacheKey you can fetch the results from: GET /api/query/results/:cacheKey when the query is ready. You can also use GET /api/query/queries to get an overview of running queries (on that instance of zamza). Using DELETE /api/query/abort/:cacheKey you can stop a query (across all instances of zamza).

Another look at the collection you are querying, for convenience:

const collectionSchema = {
  key: Number, // hashed
  timestamp: Number,
  partition: Number,
  offset: Number,
  keyValue: Buffer,
  value: Mixed,
  deleteAt: Date,
  fromStream: Boolean,
  storedAt: Number,
};

Please NOTE: your searches are will be made on fields that wont have any indices, therefore these queries might take long (depending on the size of your topics and their configuration). Also making a lot of them at the same time, will result in high loads on your MongoDB (cluster).

Counting messages in a topic based on a filter

Using the endpoint POST /api/fetch/:topic/query/count (body equals the described find endpoint, however only query field can be actually used), you can retreive the count of messages spread across topics. Resulting API response will be { count: number }.

Using Hooks

First of all you will have to enable hooks in the config config.hooks.enabled. Afterwards please make sure to create the following topics with key compaction or deletion (to your liking) so that zamza can automatically deal with retrys and replays: __zamza_retry_topic, __zamza_replay_topic. (Please do no never produce to these topics manually, they should be kept exclusive for zamza).

  • Each hook can subscribe to multiple topics

  • If the hook http call times out (config file) or does not respond with status code 200 zamza will produce a message to its internal zamza-retry topic after a short timeout (config file) and will run a retry shortly after up to max retry attempts are reached (config file).

  • Hooks can be removed or subscriptions changed any time, as well as topic configuration, if these are missing when a retry or replay is processed, zamza will simply skip the retried or replayed messages

  • please note that hook names should be unique

  • to check all configured hooks call GET /api/config/hook

  • to create a hook call POST /api/config/hook with body {name, subscriptions: [ { topic, ignoreReplay?, disabled? } ], endpoint} you can provide additional fields authorizationHeader, authorizationValue, disabled for your hook.

  • you can update a configured hook by calling PUT /api/config/hook

  • you can remove a hook by calling DELETE /api/config/hook/name/:name

Please note that any changes on the hook resource will take a few seconds to be polled and applied to all zamza instances, just like topic-config changes.

Also note that the hook endpoint should always return status code 200 in case of a successfull processing. However if you return other status codes or the hook requests fails due to network errors (depending on your config) the hook will be retried after a few seconds.

There is an additional used status code for hook responses 205. In this case zamza will try to parse the following response body {topic, partition, key, value}. Passing a correct response body and status code 205 will result in an additional produced message by zamza to the provided topic. The idea of this concept should allow you to subscribe services to a given topic, transfer the messages on received hook calls and pipe them to another (or equal) topic while providing the hook response.

Doing topic replays for hook subscriptions

First of all ensure that you have configured a hook subscription that has no set ignoreReplay to true. Otherwise you wont receive messages from a replay. Additionally your token will require __replay access rights.

Replays work on a per instance basis, there can only be one replay per topic be active at the same time. And there can only be one replay per instance at the same time.

Replays dont stop at some point, please ensure your Kafka consumer config is set to earliest (deafault value). When you have reached a state of sufficient lag on the replay consumer, you can stop the the replay process.

If you are running you have to make sure to call the same instance, with start and stop orders for replays, calling the wrong instance will result in 400 responses.

In case of restarts or crashes during (no clean SIG kills) = bad shutdowns for zamza, there are endpoints to restore and flush the replay state. It is also possible to provide a certain consumer group again, to continue at a certain offset on a topic, if not provided a random consumer group will be generated for each replay.

Replays work by spawning a small and fast mirror that pipes the target topic onto the internal zamza-replay Kafka topic and running through all hook subcriptions that are not ignoring replays (config).

  • To get an overview of all replays across instances call GET /api/config/replays.
  • To check if the current instance you are calling is running a replay call GET /api/config/replay
  • To start a new replay on an instance call POST /api/config/replay with the body { topic, consumerGroup? }
  • To check the current lag status on an instance call GET /api/config/replay/lag
  • To stop a replay process call DELETE /api/config/replay/:topic
  • In case you cannot start new replays due to bad shutdowns call DELETE /api/config/replay/flushone on the instance

Reading metadata information

Zamza collects all kind of metadata while processing your clusters messages, depending on the topic-configuration that you have provded of course. You can find these GET endpoints by calling GET /api/info/. However fetching of additional metadata information can be enabled by using the shared state API POST /api/state/ {key: string, val: string}. Topic (partition) metadata polling e.g. by setting enable_metadata_job to true. Please NOTE that metadata processing runs as job every x minutes (depending on your configuration) the queries produce a hefty read load on your MongoDB cluster (ensure to read first from slaves).

Setup Info

Deployment & Scaling

zamza as process is limited to a single CPU core and does not require too much memory (depending on Kafka consumer configuration) as well. About 0.1 CPU and 350 MB RAM with default configuration can be sufficient. However the more hooks and replays your instances are processing the faster they will max out on CPU as well as require more memory, up to 1.2 GB.

But zamza is build to scale horizontally, just spin up a few containers (see Dockerfile example) and scale up. In production environments we suggest to have as many instances are the largest amount of partitions configured for a Kafka topic in your cluster.

Metrics

You can monitor zamza via Prometheus at http://localhost:1912/metrics.

Access Management

Zamza allows fine grained access management with a similiar span of what Kafka ACLs allow you to do on a per topic basis. You define tokens as keys in the configs http access object and set the topic names or special rights as string members of the key’s array value. A wildcard * grants all rights.

e.g.

const config = {
  http: {
    access: {
      "my-crazy-secure-token-string": [ "__delete", "__produce", "__hook", "__topic", "on-some-topic" ],
      "token-for-some-topics": [ "customers", "baskets", "orders" ],
      "token-for-admin": [ "*" ]
    }
  }
};

When making calls to zamza’s HTTP API the token is provided in the authorization header.

  • * Allows every operation
  • __topic Is allowed to configure topics (only for provided topics)
  • __hook Is allowed to create hooks (only for provided topics)
  • __delete Allows deletes on topics (if no wildcard is present, only on the provided topics)
  • __produce Allows producing messages to topic (that are provided additionally)
  • __replay Is allowed to configure topic replays

Be aware that the default configuration is a wildcard for everything. (Meaning no token is required). Never expose Zamza’s HTTP interface publicly.

Config via Environment Variables

It is possible to set a few config parameters (most in role of secrets) via environment variables. They will always overwrite the passed configuration file.

  • MONGODB_URL="mongodb://localhost:27017" -> turns into: config.mongo.url = "mongodb://localhost:27017";
  • MONGODB_USERNAME=admin -> turns into: config.mongo.options.user = "admin";
  • MONGODB_PASSWORD=admin -> turns into: config.mongo.options.pass = "admin";
  • MONGODB_DBNAME=zamza_prod -> turns into: config.mongo.options.dbName = "zamza_prod";
  • KAFKA_BROKER_LIST=kafka-1:9093,kafka-2:9093 -> turns into: config.kafka.consumer.noptions["metadata.broker.list"] = "kafka-1:9093";
  • KAFKA_SSL_PASSPHRASE="123456" -> turns into: config.kafka.consumer.noptions["ssl.key.password"] = "123456";
  • KAFKA_SASL_USERNAME="123456" -> turns into: config.kafka.consumer.noptions["sasl.username"] = "123456";
  • KAFKA_SASL_PASSWORD="123456" -> turns into: config.kafka.consumer.noptions["sasl.password"] = "123456";
  • ACL_DEFINITIONS="mytoken=topic1,topic2;othertoken=topic3" zamza -l "./config.json" -> turns into: config.http.access.mytoken = [ "topic1", "topic2" ];

The kafka env values will set consumer and producer at the same time.

FAQ

I am getting errors for . or $ in my kafka message payloads

MongoDB (actually BSON) does not like object keys that contain . or $ or are null. You can ask zamza to marshall your messages to replace . or $ with _ before storing them by enabling config.marshallForInvalidCharacters = true (default is false). Please Note: however that this will increase zamza’s CPU usage, a lot.

Maintainer

Christian Fröhlingsdorf @chrisfroeh

Build with <g-emoji class=“g-emoji” alias=“heart” fallback-src=“https://github.githubassets.com/images/icons/emoji/unicode/2764.png”>❤️</g-emoji> <g-emoji class=“g-emoji” alias=“pizza” fallback-src=“https://github.githubassets.com/images/icons/emoji/unicode/1f355.png”>🍕</g-emoji> and <g-emoji class=“g-emoji” alias=“coffee” fallback-src=“https://github.githubassets.com/images/icons/emoji/unicode/2615.png”>☕️</g-emoji> by nodefluent

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