什么是hem，stitches CommonJS, and ties up other lose ends of web-app development.
Hem was primarily designed for developing Spine.js based Single Page Web Applications (SPA’s), so a major role it fills is to tie up some of the other lose ends of a frontend development project - things like running tests, precompiling code, and preparing it for deployment. It can even help out in the API connection stuff if your app needs that.
npm install -g hem
npm install -g git://github.com/spine/hem.git
or …fun trick.
git clone https://github.com/spine/hem.git cd hem npm link
the last approach is great if you want to customize hem for your own use, (…or for developing npm packages in general). Just fork and use you own path!
Hem has two types of dependency resolutions: Node modules and Stitch modules.
Node modules: Hem will recursively resolve any external Node modules your code references. This means that Spine, jQuery etc, can all be external Node modules - you don’t have lots of libraries floating around your application. This also has the advantage of explicit versioning; you’ll have much more control over external libraries.
Stitch modules: Hem will bundle up your whole application (without any static dependency analysis), automatically converting CoffeeScript (.coffee) and jQuery template (.tmpl) files. Hem doesn’t use static analysis of your application to determine dependencies, as that’s often not-viable considering the amount of dynamically loaded dependencies most applications use.
In a nutshell, Hem will make sure your application and all its dependencies are wrapped up in a single file, ready to be served to web browsers.
The format is remarkably straightforward, but is something you’ll have to adhere to in every file to make it work. CommonJS uses explicit exporting; so to expose a property inside a module to other modules, you’ll need to do something like this:
class Users extends Spine.Controller
Explicitly export the Users object
module.exports = Users
The format mandates that a module object will be available in every module. However, if you’re targeting both the CommonJS format, and a normal environment, you can do a conditional export, checking that the module object exists.
module?.exports = Users
Requiring other modules is just as straightforward; just use the require() function.
Users = require("controllers/users")
In Hem apps, all module paths are relative to the app folder - so don’t require files relative to the specific module. CSS
Styling your app
Stylus files are indicated by the .styl extension, and are automatically compiled down to CSS by Hem. This all happens in the background, so you don’t need to worry about it.
Also in the pipeline is the ability to bundle up CSS from Node modules.
Hem has some good defaults (convention over configuration), but sometimes you’ll need to change them, especially when adding libraries and dependencies.
For configuration, Hem uses a
slug.coffee file, located in the root of your application. Using coffee syntax allows you to dynamically construct the final configuration object. An example configuration is show below…
config = # hem server and test settings hem: baseAppRoute: "/" tests: runner: "browser" # application settings application: defaults: "spine" css: src: 'css' js: src: 'app' libs: [ 'lib/jquery.js', 'lib/jade_runtime.js' ] modules: [ "spine", "spine/lib/ajax", "spine/lib/route", "spine/lib/manager", "spine/lib/local" ] test: after: "require('lib/setup')" # export the configuration map for hem module.exports.config = config
By setting the
defaults value to
Spine.app, these will all be generated for you. A typical spine app will have the following folder structure
├── app │ ├── controllers │ ├── index.coffee │ ├── lib │ ├── models │ └── views ├── css │ ├── index.styl │ └── mixin.styl ├── lib │ ├── jade_runtime.js │ └── jquery.js ├── node_modules │ ├── jade │ ├── spine │ ├── stylus ├── package.json ├── public │ ├── application.css │ ├── application.js │ ├── favicon.ico │ └── index.html ├── slug.coffee └── test ├── public └── specs
The configuration file has several sections that control how the application is built and tested. For the
hem section the following can be provided:
hem.baseAppRoutethe url context from which hem will serve its files.
hem.tests.runnerthe way tests are executed, the default value is
browser. If you have karma installed you can use
karmaas the value to fallback on the karma test runner.
hem.proxyallows you to specify proxy paths that will route requests to another server behind the scenes.
"/proxy": "host": "www.yoursite.com" "path": "/proxy" "port": 8080
application settings the following can be used:
application.defaultscurrently the only valid value is
application.rootthe root folder of your project files, defaults to the root directory of the project folder (same folder that the slug.coffe file is found)
application.routeanother way to append a
contextfor the app when hem is serving files. The default value is
\\. This value is appended to the
baseAppRoutevalue to create the final url path to the application.
application.staticallows you to list the path to multiple folders for serving static content. The default
spinevalues are listed below.
"static": "/": "public", "/test": "test/public"
libsfolder is where hem looks to simply append files to the final application js file. If you list just a directory then all the js/coffee files in that directory are added. If you want the files added in a specific order then you can list the files individually.
"libs": [ "./lib/other.js" ]
srcfolder is where hem looks to find
jsfiles process and add to the final application css file. If you list just a directory then all the js/coffee files in that directory are added. Every file found in the
srcfolder will be bundled with
CommonJSand will need to be
requiredfor it to be used.
"src": [ "./app" ]
"modules": [ "spine", "spine/lib/ajax", "spine/lib/route", "spine/lib/manager", "spine/lib/local" ]
application.js.targetthe name of the single js file that is produced after all the src files are processed. If no value is provided the
srcfolder is where hem looks to find
cssfiles process and add to the final application css file. If you list just a directory then all the css/jade files in that directory are added. If you want the files added in a specific order then you can list the files individually.
"src": [ "./css/other.css" ]
application.css.targetthe name of the single css file that is produced after all the src files are processed. If no value is provided the
application.testallows you to define which files are used for testing. This has similar settings as the
jssection of the application with the
targetfields. In addition there is the
commonjsfield that allows you to name the wrapper which is used to contain the modules. In this case you would use
specs('someControllerTest')to require the test file. Also the
"test": "commonjs": "specs", "src": [ "test/specs" ], "target": "test/public/specs.js" "after": "require('lib/setup')"
Ok, so now we’ve looked at how to configure Hem, let’s actually use it in an application. As I mentioned earlier, this step is much easier with an application previously generated by Spine.app, and I advise you go down this route if you’re unfamiliar with Hem.
Now, we can start a development server, which will dynamically build our application every request, using the server command:
By default, your spine application is served at http://localhost:9294. You can configure the host and port from command line or as settings in your package.json
hem server -p 9295
Would result in your application being served at http://localhost:9295/
When you’re ready to deploy, you should build your application, serializing it to disk.
This will write application.js and application.css and specs.js to the file system. You can then commit it with version control and have your server can statically serve your application, without having to use Node, or have any npm dependencies installed.
Currently Hem supports three template options out of the box
- Basic HTML - stringifed html… that you can render…
- Eco - erb like syntax, like ejs, but with coffeeScript. Nice, but seems to be a somewhat abandoned project
- Jade - haml like syntax with optional coffeescript filter
- to use jade templates you must include jades runtime.js as a lib in your spine projects slug.json “libs”: [“lib/runtime.js”],
Karma(formally Testacular) is a neat little tool that we leverage with hem.
Will run tests in a spine projects test directory. Tests can be written in CoffeeScript!
hem watch -t
Will run tests as test files are updated. Karma makes it smart. Only previously failing tests run. If there were no previously failing tests all will run. Default is to run tests in a new Chrome window. Firefox, Phantom or some others can be used as well.
will watch and compile jasmine tests, but you will have to go to localhost:9294/test (or where ever you configured hem to run…) and manually trigger page tests to run.