2019-05-17 admin


什么是saxes,An evented streaming XML parser in JavaScript



A sax-style non-validating parser for XML.

Saxes is a fork of sax 1.2.4. All mentions of sax in this project’s documentation are references to sax 1.2.4.

Designed with node in mind, but should work fine in the browser or other CommonJS implementations.

Saxes does not support Node versions older than 8.

Notable Differences from Sax.

  • Saxes aims to be much stricter than sax with regards to XML well-formedness. Sax, even in its so-called “strict mode”, is not strict. It silently accepts structures that are not well-formed XML. Projects that need better compliance with well-formedness constraints cannot use sax as-is. Saxes aims for conformance with XML 1.0 fifth edition and XML Namespaces 1.0 third edition.

    Consequently, saxes does not support HTML, or pseudo-XML, or bad XML.

  • Saxes is much much faster than sax, mostly because of a substantial redesign of the internal parsing logic. The speed improvement is not merely due to removing features that were supported by sax. That helped a bit, but saxes adds some expensive checks in its aim for conformance with the XML specification. Redesigning the parsing logic is what accounts for most of the performance improvement.

  • Saxes does not aim to support antiquated platforms. We will not pollute the source or the default build with support for antiquated platforms. If you want support for IE 11, you are welcome to produce a PR that adds a new build transpiled to ES5.

  • Saxes handles errors differently from sax: it provides a default onerror handler which throws. You can replace it with your own handler if you want. If your handler does nothing, there is no resume method to call.

  • There’s no Stream API. A revamped API may be introduced later. (It is still a “streaming parser” in the general sense that you write a character stream to it.)

  • Saxes does not have facilities for limiting the size the data chunks passed to event handlers. See the FAQ entry for more details.


This is a non-validating parser so it only verifies whether the document is well-formed. We do aim to raise errors for all malformed constructs encountered.

However, this parser does not parse the contents of DTDs. So malformedness errors caused by errors in DTDs cannot be reported.

Also, the parser continues to parse even upon encountering errors, and does its best to continue reporting errors. You should heed all errors reported.


After an error, saxes tries to make sense of your document, but it may interpret it incorrectly. For instance <foo a=bc="d"/> is invalid XML. Did you mean to have <foo a="bc=d"/> or <foo a="b" c="d"/> or some other variation? Saxes takes an honest stab at figuring out your mangled XML. That’s as good as it gets.

Regarding <!DOCTYPEs and <!ENTITYs

The parser will handle the basic XML entities in text nodes and attribute values: &amp; &lt; &gt; &apos; &quot;. It’s possible to define additional entities in XML by putting them in the DTD. This parser doesn’t do anything with that. If you want to listen to the ondoctype event, and then fetch the doctypes, and read the entities and add them to parser.ENTITIES, then be my guest.


The source code contains JSDOC comments. Use them.


The elements of code that do not have JSDOC documentation, or have documentation with the @private tag, are private.

If you use anything private, that’s at your own peril.

If there’s a mistake in the documentation, raise an issue. If you just assume, you may assume incorrectly.

Summary Usage Information


var saxes = require("./lib/saxes"),
  parser = new saxes.SaxesParser();

parser.onerror = function (e) {
  // an error happened.
parser.ontext = function (t) {
  // got some text.  t is the string of text.
parser.onopentag = function (node) {
  // opened a tag.  node has "name" and "attributes"
parser.onend = function () {
  // parser stream is done, and ready to have more stuff written to it.

parser.write('<xml>Hello, <who name="world">world</who>!</xml>').close();

Constructor Arguments

Pass the following arguments to the parser function. All are optional.

opt - Object bag of settings regarding string formatting.

Settings supported:

  • xmlns - Boolean. If true, then namespaces are supported. Default is false.

  • position - Boolean. If false, then don’t track line/col/position. Unset is treated as true. Default is unset.

  • fileName - String. Set a file name for error reporting. This is useful only when tracking positions. You may leave it unset, in which case the file name in error messages will be undefined.

  • fragment - Boolean. If true, parse the XML as an XML fragment. Default is false.

  • additionalNamespaces - A plain object whose key, value pairs define namespaces known before parsing the XML file. It is not legal to pass bindings for the namespaces "xml" or "xmlns".


write - Write bytes onto the stream. You don’t have to do this all at once. You can keep writing as much as you want.

close - Close the stream. Once closed, no more data may be written until it is done processing the buffer, which is signaled by the end event.


The parser has the following properties:

line, column, position - Indications of the position in the XML document where the parser currently is looking.

closed - Boolean indicating whether or not the parser can be written to. If it’s true, then wait for the ready event to write again.

opt - Any options passed into the constructor.

xmlDecl - The XML declaration for this document. It contains the fields version, encoding and standalone. They are all undefined before encountering the XML declaration. If they are undefined after the XML declaration, the corresponding value was not set by the declaration. There is no event associated with the XML declaration. In a well-formed document, the XML declaration may be preceded only by an optional BOM. So by the time any event generated by the parser happens, the declaration has been processed if present at all. Otherwise, you have a malformed document, and as stated above, you cannot rely on the parser data!


To listen to an event, override on<eventname>. The list of supported events are also in the exported EVENTS array.

See the JSDOC comments in the source code for a description of each supported event.

Parsing XML Fragments

The XML specification does not define any method by which to parse XML fragments. However, there are usage scenarios in which it is desirable to parse fragments. In order to allow this, saxes provides three initialization options.

If you pass the option fragment: true to the parser constructor, the parser will expect an XML fragment. It essentially starts with a parsing state equivalent to the one it would be in if parser.write("<foo">) had been called right after initialization. In other words, it expects content which is acceptable inside an element. This also turns off well-formedness checks that are inappropriate when parsing a fragment.

The option additionalNamespaces allows you to define additional prefix-to-URI bindings known before parsing starts. You would use this over resolvePrefix if you have at the ready a series of namespaces bindings to use.

The option resolvePrefix allows you to pass a function which saxes will use if it is unable to resolve a namespace prefix by itself. You would use this over additionalNamespaces in a context where getting a complete list of defined namespaces is onerous.

Note that you can use additionalNamespaces and resolvePrefix together if you want. additionalNamespaces applies before resolvePrefix.


Q. Why has saxes dropped support for limiting the size of data chunks passed to event handlers?

A. With sax you could set MAX_BUFFER_LENGTH to cause the parser to limit the size of data chunks passed to event handlers. So if you ran into a span of text above the limit, multiple text events with smaller data chunks were fired instead of a single event with a large chunk.

However, that functionality had some problematic characteristics. It had an arbitrary default value. It was library-wide so all parsers created from a single instance of the sax library shared it. This could potentially cause conflicts among libraries running in the same VM but using sax for different purposes.

These issues could have been easily fixed, but there were larger issues. The buffer limit arbitrarily applied to some events but not others. It would split text, cdata and script events. However, if a comment, doctype, attribute or processing instruction were more than the limit, the parser would generate an error and you were left picking up the pieces.

It was not intuitive to use. You’d think setting the limit to 1K would prevent chunks bigger than 1K to be passed to event handlers. But that was not the case. A comment in the source code told you that you might go over the limit if you passed large chunks to write. So if you want a 1K limit, don’t pass 64K chunks to write. Fair enough. You know what limit you want so you can control the size of the data you pass to write. So you limit the chunks to write to 1K at a time. Even if you do this, your event handlers may get data chunks that are 2K in size. Suppose on the previous write the parser has just finished processing an open tag, so it is ready for text. Your write passes 1K of text. You are not above the limit yet, so no event is generated yet. The next write passes another 1K of text. It so happens that sax checks buffer limits only once per write, after the chunk of data has been processed. Now you’ve hit the limit and you get a text event with 2K of data. So even if you limit your write calls to the buffer limit you’ve set, you may still get events with chunks at twice the buffer size limit you’ve specified.

We may consider reinstating an equivalent functionality, provided that it addresses the issues above and does not cause a huge performance drop for use-case scenarios that don’t need it.


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